There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at.
Bacteria resistant to copper products have been detected in many Willamette Valley crops. Thoroughly spray the trunks and lower scaffolds as well as the upper branches. Bordeaux means 12 lb copper sulfate plus 12 lb hydrated lime in gallons of water. In any bordeaux formula, the ingredients always are listed in the same order- cop-per sulfate, hydrated lime, then gallons of water. It is always best to select the right tree for the site, rather than try to work against nature. However, these techniques will help to retard the growth of a tree: Reduce dormant pruning and prune more in June or July.
(Winter pruning invigorates a tree; summer pruning decreases vigor and size.) Give no or less nitrogen. Give less stumpcutting.barted Reading Time: 8 mins. Jan 10, Remove dead, dying and diseased limbs first. Take out crossing limbs and remove limbs that grow down or straight up.
Clear out the center of the tree, and prune the top of the tree Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. Sep 10, Prune fruit trees and blueberries. Eastern Oregon: Prune and train summer-bearing and fall-bearing raspberries.
Western Oregon: Prune deciduous summer-blooming shrubs and trees; wait until April in high elevations of eastern and central Oregon. Western Oregon: Prune and train trailing blackberries (if not done prior late August); prune black raspberries.
Contact your local Extension office for a list of testing laboratories or view EM online.
Provides general rules for training, pruning, and limb bending, and explains open-center, central-leader, and espalier training. Outlines specific guidelines for training and pruning apple, pear, sweet cherry, sour cherry, peach, prune, plum, apricot, fig, persimmon, walnut, hazelnut, and chestnut trees.
Includes 17 figures that illustrate various techniques.